Timeline North America


From Lewis C. Messenger

 

1. Paleo-Indian Era 15,000 B.C. – 7000 B.C.

• Lived in small mobile groups

• Hunted various animals with spears tipped with flint points

• May have collected plant food as deciduous forest replaced Ice Age

coniferous forest

• Occupied small temporary camps in response to seasonal availability of food

•Made their distinctive tools in workshops located near outcrops of flint

2. 12,000 B.C. – American Indians Arrive in What Will Become the United States

• Some prehistoric groups travel by boat and land along the coast of present day California

• As glaciers retreat and land bridges open to North American Continent from Siberia, some prehistoric groups cross these land bridges

•Hunter gatherer groups spread out across North America

3. 10,000 B.C. – Paleo Indians Become the Most Accomplished Stone Age Hunters

4. 9000 B.C. – Clovis Culture emerges

• Named for artifacts first found at Blackwater Draw near Clovis, New Mexico

5. 7500 B.C. – Folsom Culture emerges

• Named for artifacts discovered at Folsom, New Mexico

6. 7500 B.C. Eastern Woodlands Archaic Indian Era begins

• 3000 B.C. – American Indians begin shift to agriculture

• 2000 B.C. – 1000 B.C. – Red Ochre Culture appears

7. 4000 B.C. – Old Copper Culture initiates metallurgy in the United States

• Work copper along upper Great Lakes

8. 2200 B.C. – Metallurgy begins in Europe

9. 2000 B.C. – Pecos Culture produces sacred rock paintings

10. 1700 B.C. – Poverty Point Mound Culture builds first American city

11. 1000 B.C. – Woodland Period begins

• 1000 B.C. to 100 B.C. – Adena culture appears

• 200 B.C. to 500 A.D. – Hopewell culture appears

• 700 A.D. – Cahokia settlement first established

• 750 A.D. – 1100 A.D. – Upper Midwest Effigy Mounds are built

• 900 A.D. – Construction of Monks Mound, Eastern U.S.’s largest earth

work, is begun at Cahokia

 

12. 250 A.D. – Bow and arrow introduced

13. 300 – Archaic upper Great Lakes cultures begin building effigy mounds

14. 800 – Bow and arrow spreads across the North American Continent

15. 1000 – Mississippian Period begins.

1000 – Mississippian Culture establishes Cahokia as their capital

• 1050 – Aztalan is occupied by Mississippians in Wisconsin

• 1070 – Construction of the Great Serpent Effigy Mound in Ohio

• 1200 – Monks Mound is completed at Cahokia

• 1400 – Cahokia is abandoned

• 1600 – Mississippian towns in Ohio are abandoned

• 1650 – Mississippian culture vanishes

16. 1000-1400 – Navajo and Apache migrate south from present day Canada’s

Northwest Territory and establish homelands in the American

Desert Southwest

17. 1100 – Anasazi build cliff cities at Mesa Verde, Colorado

18. 1142 – Iroquois League creates a constitution

19. 1492 – Christopher Columbus makes landfall in the Caribbean

• 1520 – The Aztec Empire at Mexico City falls to Hernando Cortes

• 1565 – St. Augustine, oldest European city in North America, is founded

• 1598 – Spanish establish colony near present day Santa Fe, New Mexico

• 1607 – Jamestown Colony founded by England in present day Virginia

• 1620 – Puritans establish Plymouth colony in present day Massachusetts

20. 1600 – 1650 – Modern American Indian Tribes move into Ohio and Mississippi

River Valleys

21. 1614 – Pocahontas marries John Rolfe

22. 1621 – Squanto and Massasoit help Pilgrims survive

23. 1636-37 – Pequot War

24. 1638 – First reservations, established by Puritans near New Haven, Connecticut

25. 1675 – Metacom leads “King Philip’s War”

26. 1680 – Popé drives Spanish from Santa Fe

27. 1680 – Kateri Tekakwitha, Patroness of Ecology, dies

28. 1750 – American Indian horse culture dominates the Great Plains –

• 1700 – 1800 eastern woodland tribes Arapaho, Cheyenne and Sioux

acquire horses and move out into the Great Plains to follow the buffalo

• 1700-1750 – Kiowa migrate from present day British Columbia to

southern Great Plains

• 1720 – Comanche establish Comancheria, a homeland that stretches across

the southern plains, including Texas, Kansas, Oklahoma and parts of

Colorado

29. 1756-63 – French and Indian War

30. 1763-5 – Ottawa Chief Pontiac’s war for independence

31. 1785 – Cherokee leader, Nanye’Hi, helps negotiate the Treaty of Hopewell

setting western boundaries for white settlement in South Carolina

32. 1799 – Handsome Lake founds longhouse religion

33. 1803 – United States purchases Louisiana Territory from France 3

34. 1803–1806 – Louis and Clark expedition meets with Indian cultures living along

the Missouri River and in the Pacific northwest, including the Mandan, Hidatsa,

Shoshone, Nez Perce and Blackfoot

35. 1805 – Sacagawea, interpreter and guide, aids Lewis and Clark western

expedition

36. 1811 – Chief Tecumseh leads the Last Great American Indian Confederacy

37. 1817-42 – Seminole Indian Wars

38. 1821 – Sequoyah creates Cherokee system of writing

39. 1824 – United States establishes Bureau of Indian Affairs in War Department

40. 1827 – Cherokee Indians form their own Republic

41. 1830 – Indian Removal Act, passed by Congress, legalizes removal of all Indians

east of Mississippi to lands west of the river

42. 1833 – Chief Black Hawk writes his autobiography

43. 1835 – Osceola resists Indian Removal Act

44. 1850 – Chief Sealth welcomes settlers to the Pacific Northwest

45. 1851 – First Fort Laramie Treaty to guarantee safe passage of settlers traveling to

the Pacific Northwest and California

46. 1854 – Plains Indians War begins in Wyoming; it would last for 36 years

47. 1861-65 – Civil War in United States

48. 1862 – Minnesota Uprising by woodland Santee Sioux results in the deaths of

more than 400 white settlers and the expulsion of the Santee Sioux from

Minnesota

49. 1861 – Cochise, Undefeated Apache Warrior Hero, fights to keep Apache

land

50. 1862 – U.S. Congress passes Homestead Act opening the Great Plains to settlers

51. 1864 – Ely Samuel Parker Becomes Adjutant to General Ulysses S. Grant

52. 1865-69 Building of Union Pacific Railroad brings settlers to the Great Plains

53. 1868 –Red Cloud, the Sioux Renaissance Leader, hands the U.S. Military its

only defeat on U.S. soil

54. 1875 – Quanah Parker, Legendary Comanche Leader, lead his people to

peace

55. 1876 – Sitting Bull & Crazy Horse defeat George Armstrong Custer and 7th

Cavalry at the Battle of the Little Bighorn

56. 1877 – Chief Joseph leads brilliant Nez Perce retreat

57. 1879 – Ponca Chief Standing Bear sues Federal Government and wins case to

become a citizen

58. 1880 – Susette La Flesche Picotte works lecture circuit for American Indian rights

59. 1883 – Sarah Winnemucca Publishes Her Autobiography

60. 1887 – Dawes General Allotment Act passed by Congress leads to the break up of

the large Indian Reservations and the sale of Indian lands to white settlers

61. 1889 – Susan La Flesche Picotte becomes the first American Indian woman

medical doctor

62. 1890 – The First Battle of Wounded Knee on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation

in South Dakota ends the Plains Indian Wars

63. 1900 – La Flesche family starts to preserve American Indian cultures andreligions 4

64. 1900 – Francis La Flesche becomes a successful scholar and ethnologist

65. 1903 – Charles Albert Bender opens the door to professional sports for American

Indians

66. 1907 – Charles Curtis is the first American Indian elected to the U.S. Senate

67. 1912 – Jim Thorpe wins Olympic Gold Medals in the Pentathlon and

Decathlon events

68. 1924 – Gertrude Simmons Bonnin sets the stage for survival of American

Indians

69. 1924 – All Indians declared citizens of U.S.

70. 1929 – Charles Curtis is elected Vice President of the United States

71. 1934 – Wheeler-Howard Act, passed to protect American Indian Culture

72. 1939 – U.S. Park Service commissions Pablita Velarde to create a series of murals

73. 1942 –American Indians become heroes in WWII

• 1942 – Clarence Tinker promoted to major general in U.S. Air Force

• 1942-45 – Navajo code talkers thwart Japanese code breakers

• 1945 – Ira Hayes helps raise the flag on Iwo Jima

74. 1956 – Ben Reifel becomes first member of Sioux nation elected to Congress

75. 1964 – Billy Mills wins the 10,000 meter run at the Tokyo Olympics

76. 1964 – Jay Silverheels founds the Indian Actors Workshop

77. 1968 – N. Scott Momaday wins Pulitzer Prize

78. 1969 – American Indian Movement (AIM) begins to form

79. 1970 – John Echohawk founds NARF

80. 1971 – William Hensley helps pass the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act

81. 1973 – Second Battle of Wounded Knee

82. 1977 –Velarde and Martinez Found the Modern American Indian Art

Movement

83. 1979 – American Indian Religious Freedom Act (Public Law 95-341 ) passed

84. 1983 – Buffy Sainte-Marie receives Academy Award

85. 1984 – Louise Erdrich wins the National Book Critics Circle Award

86. 1985 – Wilma Mankiller becomes Principal Chief of the Cherokee Nation

87. 1987 – California’s Cabazon band wins U.S. Supreme Court Case to run casinos

88. 1990 – Simon Ortiz receives Lifetime Achievement award from Native Writers

1996 – Winona LaDuke runs as Green Party candidate for Vice President

89. 2002 – Dr. Frank Dukepoo Joins Einstein on Ithaca’s Sciencenter Wall of

Inspiration

• John Herrington, first American Indian Astronaut

90. 2007 – Jana Mashonee is nominated for a Grammy